The characteristic chimpanzee shape includes arms that extend beyond the knees, opposable thumbs, and a prominent mouth. Chimpanzees’ arms are longer than their legs. The skin on the face, ears, palms, and soles of the feet is bare, and the rest of the body is covered with coarse brown to black hair.
Infant chimpanzees have very pale brownish skin on their faces, ears, palms of their hands, and soles of their feet.Infants also have a white tail tuft that disappears by early adulthood.
Male chimpanzees weigh between 40 and 60 kg (88 to 132 lb) against 32 to 47 kg (70 to 104 lb) for females. Head-body length (from the nose to the rump while on all fours) ranges from 63 to 94 cm (2.1 to 3.1 ft). While standing, males can measure up to 160 cm (5.2 ft) tall and females up to 130 cm (4.3 ft) tall.
Chimpanzees have a wide but discontinuous distribution in Equatorial Africa, from sea-level to 2,800 m above sea level. The subspecies are distributed as follows.
The Western chimpanzee is found in West Africa from Senegal to Ghana, and possibly also in western Nigeria.
The Nigeria-Cameroon chimpanzee is found only in Nigeria
, north of the Sanaga River.
Central chimpanzee distribution ranges from Cameroon, south of the Sanaga River, to the Congo River/Ubangi River (DR Congo).
The Eastern chimpanzee is found from the Ubangi River/Congo River in Central African Republic and DR Congo, to western Uganda, Rwanda, and western Tanzania (with small, relict populations in Burundi and South Sudan).
Female chimpanzees reach reproductive age at 13 years of age, males at around 16 years of age. Mating occurs throughout the year and there is no evidence of a birth season, although there is seasonality in the number of estrous females in a group relating to food abundance. The gestation period is around 230 days, and chimpanzees typically give birth to a single infant.
The survival and emotional health of the young is primarily dependent on maternal care. By 4-6 years of age, chimpanzees are weaned and infancy ends. Juveniles, 6-9 years of age, remain close to their mothers, but they also have more interactions with other members of their community. The lifespan of a wild chimpanzee is 40 to 45 years.